The generic name for fibres made from a synthetic linear polymer that consists of at least 85% (m/m) of acrylonitrile units or acrylonitrile copolymers. (See also polyacrylonitrile fibre).
The generic name for cellulose acetate fibres in which less than 92% but at least 74% of the hydroxyl groups are acetylated.
NOTE: "These fibres were formerly referred to as "diacetate."
An anionic dye characterised by its substantivity (q.v.) for protein fibres and polyamide fibres and usually applied from an acidic or neutral dyebath.
A loom in which the weft yarn is propelled through the shed by means of a jet of air.
A fabric that has a printed pattern that covers practically the whole face of the fabric.
The generic name for fibres composed of synthetic linear macromolecules that have in the chain recurring amide groups, at least 85% of which are joined directly to two aromatic rings and in which imide groups may be substituted for up to 50% of the amide groups.
Abrasion Mark <chafe mark>
An area of localised wear characterised by the presence of excessive surface hairiness or denuded fibre and caused by chafing by, or by oblique impact with, a hard or rough surface.
Bar (Woven Fabric)
A band (q.v.) that runs with clearly defined edges and that differs in appearance from the adjacent normal fabric. (It may be shady and may or may not run parallel with the picks). Bar is a general term that covers the following:
a) Pick Bar
A band, of one of the following types, in which the pick spacing is different from that in the normal fabric:
1. Starting Place <set mark, stop mark>
A prominent band in a woven fabric that has one clearly defined edge and that gradually merges into normal fabric, and is caused by an abrupt change in pick spacing followed by gradual reversal to normal pick spacing. Such a bar occurs on restarting the loom without sufficient care after
i) pick finding,
ii) uneven weaving or pulling-back, or
iii) prolonged loom stoppage.
aa) These bars may also be referred to as "standing places" or "pulling-back places" if the precise cause is" unknown.
bb) In knitting, the band has several courses containing stitch lengths longer than in adjacent normal courses and has resulted from a machine stop that has caused changes in warp tension.
2. Weaving Bar
A band that usually shades away to normal fabric at both its edges.
It owes its appearance to a change in pick spacing, and may repeat at regular intervals throughout an appreciable length or even the whole length of the piece, and is the result of some mechanical fault in the loom, e.g. faulty gearing in the take-up motion, bent beam gudgeons, uneven or eccentric beam ruffles, uneven bearing surfaces at some point in the let-off motion, etc. Bars of this type associated with the take-up or let-off motions are also referred to as "motion marks".
b) Shade Bar
A band that has developed a different colour from the adjacent fabric during (or subsequent to) dyeing and finishing, owing to damage to (or contamination of) otherwise normal fabric or weft yarn prior to weaving.
c) Tension Bar
A band composed of weft yarn that has been stretched more (or less) than the normal weft prior to or during weaving.
This abnormal stretch may have been imposed during winding by faulty manipulation or by some mechanical fault in the loom; during weaving by incorrect tensioning in the shuttle; or may have arisen owing to faulty yarn having been excessively moistened at some stage and stretched more than the normal yarn under normal applied tensions. It may appear as a cockled bar in those cases where stretch has been sufficient. (See also cockle (fabric).
d) Weft Bar
A band that is solid in appearance, runs parallel with the picks and contains weft that is different in material, count, filament, twist, lustre, colour or shade from the adjacent normal weft.
A fabric of pebbled appearance, usually of twilled hopsack weave or broken-rib weave and used for a variety of clothing purposes.
Barré (Knitted Fabric)
A clearly defined band (q.v.) or bands that run (s) full width across an open-width fabric or spirally in a tubular fabric, and differ (s) in appearance from the adjacent normal fabric as the result of variation of yarn characteristics.
"When the yarn is of a different colour (owing to differential dyeing) from that of the rest of the fabric, that defect is termed "barriness)."
Batch ( Lot )
A group of units of products of the same type, structure, colour and finish, class and composition, manufactured under essentially the same conditions and essentially at the same time, and submitted at any one time for inspection and testing.
The processing of materials as batches or lots in which the whole of each batch/lot is subjected to one stage of the process at a time.
A fabric that, owing to the nature of the weave, shows rounded cords in the warp direction with pronounced sunken lines between them.
The weave on the face of the cords is usually plain, but other weaves may be used. There are weft floats that determine the width of the cords on the back, and wadding ends may be used to accentuate the prominence of the cords.
A fibre formed by the conjunction at a spinning jet, of two fibre-forming polymers of different properties.
a) The two components may be caused to merge approximately side by side (bilaterally), concentrically or as fibrils of one component in a matrix of the other. An example is the production of crimped fibre, e.g. a combination of polymers of different contractive properties.
b) Although formed by a natural process, wool and related animal fibres may exhibit a comparable dual structure of the cortical cells.
The procedure, other than by scouring only, of improving the whiteness of a textile by decolourising it from the grey state, with or without the removal of the nature colouring matter or extraneous substances (or both).
The removal of colour from dyed or printed textiles is usually called stripping (q.v.).
A chemical reagent capable of bleaching, e.g. oxidising agents such as sodium or calcium hypochlorite, sodium chlorite, permanganates, hydrogen peroxide, and reducing agents such as sulphur dioxide and sodium bisulphite.
Loss of dye from a coloured textile in contact with a liquid, leading to the coloration of the liquid or of adjacent areas (or both) of the same or other textile (s).
A thread in which the different component fibres are thoroughly mixed.
A cylindrical or slightly tapered barrel, with or without flanges, for holding slubbings, rovings (q.v.) or yarns. (The term is usually qualified to indicate the purpose for which it is used, e.g. ring bobbin, twisting bobbin, spinning bobbin, condensor bobbin, weft bobbin).
A bobbin that has a cylindrical barrel and a conical or flanged base, and from which yarn can be withdrawn over the nose, i.e. the top of the barrel.
The shape of the fully wound bobbin is that of a cylinder with a conical top.
Bow (Woven Fabric)
Curvature of the warp or weft.
A fabric is said to be warp-bowed or weft-bowed, according to which set of threads is curved. Weft bow may or may not extend over the full width of the fabric.
Breaking Elongation (see Breaking Extension)
Breaking Extension <breaking elongation>
The extension/elongation produced by the breaking force, i.e. the maximum force applied during a determination of breaking strength.
The maximum tensile force observed during a test in which the specimen is stretched until it breaks.
Breaking Stress <breaking tension>
The maximum tension (expressed in Newton ) developed in a specimen stretched to rupture.
"The force is usually related to the area of the unstrained specimen. If the actual stress, defined in terms of the area of the strained specimen, is used, then its maximum value is called "actual breaking stress".
Breaking Tension (See Breaking Stress)
Breaking tension, as defined, is independent of the acceleration due to gravity.
Descriptive of textile materials, particularly man-made fibres, the normal lustre of which has not been reduce by physical or chemical means.
Broken End (Woven Fabric)
A warp-way line where a warp yarn is absent for part or all of a piece and that is caused by a warp yarn break that has not been repaired.
Rupture of individual filaments (usually during winding or weaving) that results in the appearance of a fibrous or hairy surface, which may be localised or general, in a fabric made from flat continuous filament yarn.
A pick that is present for only part of the fabric width.
A coppery lustre on the surface of a fabric and caused by the presence of excessive dyestuff during dyeing or by precipitation of the dyestuff during the dyeing process. (See also gilding).
An area of localised compression within a fabric.
The third of the three basic motions in weaving, in which the pick of the weft yarn(s) left in the warp shed is forced to the fell (q.v.) of the fabric.
A machine in which heavy bowls rotate in contact under mechanical pressure.
The bowls may be unheated or one may be a thick-walled steel shell heated internally. All bowls may rotate at the same surface speed, or one highly polished and heated bowl may rotate at a higher surface speed than the rest. In certain specialised machines, e.g. for knitted goods, two adjacent bowls may be heated, or, in the case of a laundry calender, one bowl works against a steam chest shaped to the curvature of the bowl. (See also friction calendering).
A smooth finish obtained by passing the fabric between heavy bowls of a calender, which results in the fabric being so flattened as to close the interstices between the yarns.
A fibre composed of at least 90% (m/m) of carbon, and commonly produced by carbonising organic polymers in filamentary form.
A firm warp-faced suiting that has a steep twill weave with double twill lines separated by pronounced grooves that are formed by the weft.
A component in cotton of trash (q.v.) in the form of a heterogeneous assortment of vegetable fragments, most of them being small pieces of leaf, leaf bract (a small form of leaf growing beneath the boll) and stalk.
"Broken fragments of twig and small branches, particularly when brittle, may be broken up further in ginning and are then also regarded as "chaff". Another component of chaff is the silvery lining of the boll interior, sometimes termed "shale", particularly the partitions dividing the locules before the boll opens."
a) In a weft-knitted fabric, a defect that consists of ill-defined areas of varying density attributable to the use of yarn of irregular thickness.
b) In webs and slivers, a defect that consists of ill-defined areas of varying density.
c) In a dyed fabric, a defect that consists of random, faintly defined areas of varying density.
d) In a bleached fabric, a defect that consists of opaque patches, usually visible only in transmitted light.
A textile fabric on one or both surfaces of which has been formed, in situ, a layer or layers of firmly adhering coating material.
The crimped, rippled, wavy or pebbled appearance of a fabric where distortion of the structure has occurred as the result of non-uniform relaxation or shrinkage.
This defect may result from variations in the tension of the ends (q.v.) or picks at the time of weaving, from variations in the degree of stretch imposed on the yarn during earlier processes or from the differences in contraction of two or more yarns used accidentally or intentionally in the fabric. The defect may be distributed over a large area of fabric or may be confined to isolated stripes, bars or streaks.
a) The characteristic of the visual sensation that enables the eye to distinguish differences in its quality, such as may be caused by differences in the spectral distribution of light rather than by differences in spatial distribution or fluctuations with time.
b) As (a) above, but applied directly to the stimulus or the source (primary or secondary) giving rise to the sensation. (For brevity, the stimulus is often referred to as the colour).
c) The property of an object or stimulus or quality of visual sensation, distinguished by its appearance of redness, greenness, etc., in contradistinction to whiteness, greyness, blackness (i.e. chromatic colour is contradistinctinve to achromatic colour).
A polymer obtained when the compounds used in its formation react together, with the elimination of a further compound such as water, formaldehyde or hydrochloric acid.
The amount of moisture present in a textile in its raw, or partly or wholly manufactured form.
a) To allow textile materials (raw materials, fibres, slivers, yarns and fabrics) to come to hygroscopic equilibrium with the surrounding atmosphere, or with the standard atmosphere for testing (q.v.)
b) to add relatively small quantities of water to textile materials (raw materials, fibres, slivers, yarns and fabrics).
The object of conditioning is to bring textiles to an agreed moisture content for sale, or to facilitate later processing. Among the methods used for applying water are:
1. mechanical means during gilling (q.v.) or winding;
2. the use of conditioning machines; and
3. storing in an atmosphere of very high relative humidity.
A yarn produced at the spinning frame by feeding a yarn through the delivery rollers only, simultaneously with the spinning of the staple fibres (q.v.)
The yarn fed through at the delivery rollers only is usually known as the "core", and the other component is known as the "wrapper". The core may be of continuous-filament yarn or of spun yarn. If the core is of spun yarn, the direction of its twist is usually the same as that of the complete yarn. Core-spun yarns are made for decorative purposes or, more commonly, for strengthening the wrapper for facilitating subsequent processes. When used for strengthening, the core may, after it has served its purpose, be removed by solvent or other chemical action, e.g. the removal of calcium alginate filament yarn by an alkaline scour or of a cotton yarn by carbonising. The core is often retained for strengthening the resultant fabric as is the case if nylon or polyester continuous-filament yarns are used.
Count of Reed
The number of dents (q.v.) per centimetre.
Cover Factor (Woven Fabric)
A number, derived from the number of warp (or weft) threads per unit length and the linear density of the yarns, that indicates the extent to which the area of a woven fabric is covered by the warp (or weft) yarns.
a) A woven fabric has, therefore, two cover factors, i.e. the warp cover factor and the weft cover factor.
b) In the tex system (q.v.) the cover factor is calculated by the expression:
"number of threads per centimetre x 1 divided by the square root of the tex ."
An unintentional fold in a fabric that may be introduced at some stage in processing and that is not readily removed by those means normally available to a garment maker, e.g. steam pressing. (See also crease mark).
A mark left in a fabric after a crease has been removed, and that may be caused by mechanical damage to fibres at the fold, by variation in treatment owing to the constriction along the fold, or by disturbance of the fabric structure.
a) In Fibre
The waviness of a fibre, i.e. the condition in which the axis of a fibre under minimum external stress departs from a straight line and follows a simple or a complex or an irregular wavy path.
1. In its simplest form, crimp is uniplanar and regular, i.e. it resembles a sine wave, but it is frequently much more complicated and irregular. An example of three-dimensional crimp is helical.
2. Crimp may be expressed numerically as the number of waves (crimps) per unit length, or as the difference between the distance between two points on the fibre when it is relaxed and when it is straightened under suitable tension, expressed as a percentage of the relaxed distance.
b) In Yarn
The waviness or distortion of a yarn owing to interlacing in the fabric.
1. In woven fabric, the crimp is measured by the relation between the length of the fabric test specimen and the corresponding length of yarn when it is removed therefrom and straightened under suitable tension. The crimp may then be expressed numerically as a percentage or as a ratio, i.e. the ratio of yarn length to fabric length. In both methods, fabric length is the basis.
2. Although this definition could logically be applied to knitted fabrics or fabrics of pile construction, it is usual to employ special terms, e.g. stitch length, terry ratio.
A measure of crease resistance specified quantitatively in terms of certain parameters such as crease recovery angle.
A term used to indicate the capability of a textile material to resist creases or recover from creases (or both) incidental to use.
A relaxation shrinkage that occurs under normal conditions of storage.
A weave that has a random distribution of floats that produces an all-over pebbled effect, so disguising the weave repeat.
Wrinkles of varying degrees of intensity and size that resemble the pattern of birds' footprints and that have been caused by the overloading of a wet-processing machine.
a) A process that follows the addition of a finish to a textile fabric and in which appropriate conditions are used to effect a chemical reaction.
Heat treatment for several minutes is common, but higher temperatures for short times and high moisture regain (moist curing) are also used.
b) The vulcanisation of rubber, whether by the application of heat or by passing through cold sulphuryl chloride solution (cold cure).
Combined Fabric <laminated fabric>
A fabric composed of two or more preformed layers, at least one of which is a textile fabric, that adhere closely together by means of an added adhesive or by the adhesive properties of one or more of the component layers.
A yarn composed of one or more filaments that run the whole length of the yarn.
Yarns of one filament and of more than one filament are known as monofilament and multi-filament yarns respectively.
Cord Fabric (Woven)
A rib fabric (q.v.) that has prominent ribs.
a) The ribs are referred to as "cords".
b) Not all fabrics that have prominent ribs are covered by this term.
A system of spinning in which roller delivery, twisting and winding onto a package operate simultaneously and without interruption, as, for example, in cap, centrifugal, flyer and ring spinning.
The reciprocal of the dynamic viscosity of a solution of cellulose of prescribed concentration in a cuprammonium solvent of prescribed composition, measure under precisely defined conditions.
These solutions commonly exhibit non-Newtonian flow behaviour. Cuprammonium fluidity does not therefore have absolute physical significance as does the fluidity of a Newtonian liquid, although it has hitherto been expressed in reciprocal poises. It is considered that it should be regarded as an empirical quantity and because of this, the results are given in units of cuprammonium fluidity and are not linked to a specific unit.
A figured fabric in which different weaves, generally satin and sateen (although twill or other binding weaves may sometimes be introduced) interchange to form the pattern.
A figured fabric in which different weaves, generally satin and sateen (although twill or other binding weaves may sometimes be introduced) interchange to form the pattern.
A finishing process in which the fabric is wound tightly onto a perforated roller and either immersed in hot water, which is also circulated through the fabric (wet decatising) or has steam blown through it (dry decatising).
Decatising is used mainly to improve the handle and appearance of worsted fabrics.
Conspicuous pin-stenter marks in the body of the fabric (i.e. clear of the selvedge), and that therefore reduce the usable width of the fabric.
A fault that reduces the ability of the article to perform its intended function or, if it were to appear in a prominent position in the article, would readily be seen and objected to by an ordinary person who might contemplate purchasing the article in a retail shop.
A fault that, if it were to appear in a prominent position in a garment or manufactured article made from the fabric, would readily be seen and objected to by an ordinary person who might contemplate purchasing such a garment or manufactured article in a retail shop.
A test sample or a test specimen or a set of test specimens that fails in one or more respects to comply with the relevant requirements of the specification or standard reference sample.
Degree of Crystallinity
The amount, expressed as a percentage by mass, or linear polymer that is generally present in a crystalline form, the remainder of the polymer being present in an amorphous state.
There are several methods used for the determination of the amount of crystalline polymer in a man-made fibre. The results obtained differ according to the method used, so comparisons should be limited to one method of measurement.
Degree of Orientation
The extent to which the molecules in a fibre lie in the direction of the fibre length.
The unit of a reed that contains a reed wire and the space between adjacent reed wires.
The colour quality (q.v.), an increase in which is associated with an increase in the quantity of colorant present, all other conditions (viewing, etc.) remaining the same.
A substance that assist the removal of dirt by emulsification or dissolution of the dirt particles and normally has the power of suspending the dirt in the cleansing liquid.
Differential Dyeing (Fibres)
Descriptive of fibres of the same generic class, but that have potentially different dyeing properties from those of the normal fibre.
a) An immersion of relatively short duration of a textile in a liquid.
b) The depth of liquor in the inner cylinder of a rotating-cage washing machine.
c) A term sometimes used to describe the treatment of cellulosic material with a chemic (q.v.).
A class of water-insoluble dyes originally introduced for dyeing cellulose acetate and usually applied from fine aqueous suspensions.
An area where the weave of the fabric has been disarranged, without damage to the yarns.
A mechanism attached to a loom for controlling the movement of the heald shafts.
It is required when the number of heald shafts or the number of picks in a repeat of a pattern, or both, are beyond the capacity of the tappet shedding.
A weave that has a pattern that requires the use of a dobby mechanism during weaving. (See also dobby).
A straight-edge whose function is to remove surplus material (e.g. filling, coating material, printing paste) from the surface of the rollers used to apply the material or from a fabric surface to which the material was applied.
Doctor-Blade Streak <doctor streak>
A lengthways streak of excess colour or excess coating on a fabric and that has been caused by irregularity between the edge of the doctor blade and the surface of the fabric or roller.
Dope-Eyed <mass-coloured, spun-coloured, spun-dyed>
Descriptive of man-made fibres in which the colorant has been incorporated before the filament is formed.
Preferably referred to as mass-coloured (q.v.).
Operations by which slivers (q.v.) are blended (or doubled), levelled and, by drafting (q.v.), reduced to the stage of roving (q.v.) (In the cotton industry, the term is applied exclusively to processing at one machine, namely the draw frame).
Various systems of drawing are practised but, with the advent of man-made staple fibres and recent machinery development, the boundaries between the various systems are becoming less distinct. In the worsted industry, the systems differ mainly within the means of fibre control between the major pairs of drafting rollers and the methods of driving the spindles and bobbins, if these are employed.
The various worsted systems are:
a) American system (oil-combed tops).
b) Anglo-continental system (oil-combed tops).
c) Cone system (oil-combed tops).
d) Continental system (dry-combed tops).
e) Open system (oil-combed tops).
f) Raper system (oil-combed tops).
Drawing (Synthetic Polymers)
The stretching to near the limit of plastic flow of synthetic fibres of low molecular orientation.
This process orientates the polymer chains in the amorphous areas of the fibres in the direction of its length and this results in an increase in the crystalline regions. The ways of carrying out this process are by "hot drawing" or "cold drawing" (i.e. with or without the intentional application of heat).
Extruded yarn that has been subjected to a stretching or drawing process which orientates the long-chain molecules of which the yarn is composed, in the direction of the filament axis.
On further stretching, such yarn possesses elastic extension as compared with the plastic flow of undrawn yarn.
A warp-faced piece-dyed twill fabric that has a stout texture and a higher number of threads per centimetre in the warp than in the weft.
Some drills are made with five-end satin weave and it is recommended that these be called satin drills.
a) Descriptive of worsted yarns produced from dry-combed top.
b) Descriptive of coarse linen yarn spun from air-dry roving (q.v.)
c) Descriptive of man-made filaments the coagulation of which is effected by evaporation of the solvent from the spinning solution. (See also wet-spun (b).
A closely woven plain-weave fabric, traditionally made from cotton or linen yarns, and similar to canvas.
The terms "canvas" and "duck" have become almost synonymous and are often qualified by terms which indicate the use of the fabric, e.g. navy canvas, artist's canvas, duck suiting, belting duck.
a) Descriptive of textile materials the normal lustre (q.v.) of which has been reduced by physical or chemical means.
b) The colour quality, an increase in which may be compared with the effect of the addition of a small quantity of neutral grey dye to the dyestuff, and such that a colour match cannot be made by adjusting the strength.
Any type of finish that is reasonably resistant to normal usage and to washing or dry-cleaning (or both).
A colorant that has substantively (q.v.) for a substrate, either inherent or induced by reactants.
The treatment with a dye to obtain a persistent modification in the colour of a fibre.
The liquid that contains the dye and the reagents necessary for dyeing.
Dye Stain (Defect)
A discrete area of a colour different from that of the adjacent parts of the fabric.
A selvedge that varies in width.
Variations in weft tension or lack of control of the warp ends within the selvedge may result in such unevenness. Pulled-in selvedges are caused by pulling in of the edges by isolated tight picks. Dog-legged selvedges are the result of the characteristic gradual change in weft tension that occurs as some types of weft pirn are unwound, regular changes in selvedge width being present at each pirn change.
The extent of the ability of a stressed textile to recover its original size and shape immediately after removal of the stress.
Any polymer that has high extensibility together with rapid and substantially complete elastic recovery.
An increase in length.
The increase may be expressed:
a) in units of length,
b) as a percentage of the initial length, or
c) as a fraction of the initial length.
A length of finished fabric of less than a customary unit (piece) length.
1. Each passage of a length of fabric through a machine, for example in jig-dyeing.
2. A joint between pieces of fabric caused by, for example, damage or short lengths in weaving, or damage in bleaching, dyeing and finishing.
An individual strand.
An individual warp thread.
A break of a warp thread in the loom, that, if not corrected, leads to a fault. (See also broken end).
Uneven dyeing that consists of a difference in colour between the bulk and the end of a length of fabric.
The extent of the ability of a textile to stretch when a tensile force is applied to it.
A manufactured assembly of fibres or yarns (or both) that has substantial surface area in relation to its thickness, and sufficient mechanical strength to give the assembly inherent cohesion.
Fabrics are most commonly woven or knitted, but the term also applies to assemblies produced by lace-making, tufting, felting, net-making and non-woven processes.
The side of a fabric that is intended to be used outermost.
Turns inserted in opposite directions and in equal numbers in adjacent elements of yarn, silver (q.v.) or similar aggregations of fibres or filaments, and that are characterised by their temporary nature.
False twist may be used as follows:
a) To produce effects, e.g.
1. the entanglement of fibres while false-twisted;
2. a measure of permanence to the twisted form by heat-setting the false-twisted yarns.
b) To assist processing, e.g.
1. the passage of sliver from "noble" comb to can;
2. the attenuation of rovings (q.v.) on a condenser ring frame.
The property of resistance to the agency named (e.g. to washing, light, rubbing, crocking, gas fumes, etc.).
Fell (of the Fabric)
The line of termination of the fabric in the loom, i.e. the line formed by the last weft thread.
A unit of matter characterised by flexibility, fineness and a high ratio of length to thickness.
a) Crimpled Length
The extent (see (b) below) of crimped fibre substantially freed from external restraint, and measured with respect to its general axis of orientation.
b) Fibre Extent
The distance in a given direction between two planes (each perpendicular to the given direction) that just enclose the fibre without intersecting it.
1. If the fibre is in a sliver (q.v.) (or yarn, roving, etc.) and the direction of the extent is not specified, the "given direction" is to be taken as the axis of the sliver.
2. It should be noted that the extent of a fibre is a variable property that differs from the straightened length of the fibre according to circumstances; thus in a card web, the example, where the fibres are in a state of considerable disarray, the extent of a fibre after it has been passed through one or more drawing processes. If, for any reason, a fibre is subject to a stretching force, its extent in the direction of the force may be greater than its straightened length.
c) Staple Length
A measurement by which a sample of fibrous raw material is characterised according to its technically most important fibre length.
The staple length of wool is usually taken as the length of the longer fibres in a hand-prepared tuft or "staple" in its naturally crimped and wavy condition (see crimp). In cotton, on the other hand, the staple length corresponds very closely to the modal or most frequent length of the fibres when measured in a straightened condition.
A fibre of indefinite length.
Damage to multi-filament yarns that results in broken filaments.
A yarn composed of one or more filaments (q.v.) that run the whole length of the yarn.
Yarns of one filament and yarns of several filaments are referred to as mono-filament and multi-filament, respectively.
Finish (n) (finishing)
Terms used broadly, as follows, to include added materials, the process employed (finishing) and the final result:
a) A substance or a mixture of substances added to textile materials at any stage to impart desired properties.
b) The type of process, physical or chemical, applied to produce a desired effect.
c) Such properties, for example smoothness, drape, lustre, or crease resistance, produced by (a) or (b) above (or both).
d) The state of the textile material as it leaves a previous processor.
The mechanical operations of spinning, weaving and knitting, though they may largely determine the result, are excluded.
To apply or produce a finish.
To render a textile incapable of supporting rapid combustion.
To render a textile incapable of propagating flame beyond the edges of a charred area produced by the application of a specific test flame.
a) A multi-filament yarn with no twist.
The term is still used in respect of these yarns after a small amount of twist has been introduced by subsequent processing, e.g. as in over-end winding.
The extent of the ability of a textile to be flexed repeatedly without being ruptured.
A length of yarn on the surface of a woven fabric between two consecutive intersections of the yarn with the yarns woven at right angles to it.
A float is designated by the number of threads over or under which the floating yarn passes.
Waste fibres which fly out into the atmosphere during carding, drawing, spinning and other processes.
A weft yarn with broken filaments resulting from abrasion during weft insertion, winding or excessive tension.
a) An edging or border of loose threads, tassels or loops.
The edging or border may be produced by the constituent threads or by threads added to a fabric after weaving or knitting.
b) A trimming (narrow fabric) that has, on one or both edges, cut or looped weft threads that form a decorative edge, and that are sometimes bunched or knotted together to increase the decorative effect.
1. Tassels, balls or other adornments may be added.
2. The part of the fringe comprising both warp and weft is known as the heading.
3. The part of the fringe containing only weft is known as the skirt.
A length of fabric used in processing to lead a piece of fabric through the equipment and so enable the piece to be processed from end to end, with minimum wastage.
The process of passing fabric through a calender in which a highly polished, usually heated steel bowl rotates at a higher surface speed than the softer (e.g. cotton-filled or paper-filled) bowl against which it works, thus producing a glaze on the face of the fabric that is in contact with the steel bowl.
The friction ratio is the ratio between the peripheral speed of the faster steel bowl and that of the slower bowl and is normally in the range 1½:1 to 3:1.
Fluorescent Brightener <optical brightener, optical whitener>
A substance that is added to a textile (uncoloured or coloured) to increase the apparent light reflectance in the visible region by the conversion of ultraviolet radiation into visible light and so to increase the apparent brightness or whiteness of the textile.
Grey Goods <greige goods, loomstate fabric>
A fabric in the condition in which it leaves the loom or knitting machine, i.e. before any bleaching, dyeing or finishing treatment has been given to it.
In some countries, particularly on the North American continent, the term "greige" (or griege) is used. For woven goods, the term "loomstate" is frequently used as an alternative. In the linen and lace trades, the term "brown goods" is used.
The subjective assessment of the roughness, smoothness, harshness, pliability, thickness, etc., of a textile material and that is obtained by the sense of touch.
A combination of twill weaves in which the direction of twill is so reversed (usually by drafting) as to produce stripes that resemble herring bones.
Dyeing under pressure higher than atmospheric pressure with the object of raising the temperature of the dye liquor above its normal boiling point.
The term "pressure dyeing" in this connection is deprecated. (See also pack dyeing).
Hopsack Weave <mat weave, matt weave, panama weave>
A modification of a plain weave in which two or more warp yarns weave together as one and two or more weft yarns weave together as one.
The basic hopsack weaves may be modified in a number of ways, such as:
a) by introducing additional interlacings to give a firmer cloth, e.g. stitched hopsack weave;
b) by arranging the interlacing in diagonal lines, e.g. twilled hopsack weave.
The attribute of colour whereby it is recognised as being predominately red, green, blue or yellow, etc.
The relief print-off of defects, e.g. slubs, under excessive rolling tension.
International Grey Scales
Two series of pairs of chips that show increasing contrast within pairs, and are used visually for comparing the differences in colour of textile specimens or the degrees of staining of transfer cloths attached to the test specimens, that occur during colour fastness testing.
a) Basic Scale for Assessing Change in Colour
A scale that consists of five pairs of non-glossy grey-coloured chips, and in which a fastness rating of 5 (indicating no colour change) at one end of the scale is represented by two identical grey chips, and a fastness rating of 1 (indicating a severe colour change) at the other end of the scale is represented by a pair of grey chips having a colour difference of 13,6 Cielab units.
b) Basic Scale for Assessing Staining
A scale that consists of one pair of white and four pairs of non-glossy grey- and white-coloured chips, and in which a fastness rating of 5 (indicating severe staining) at one end of the scale is represented by the pair of white chips, and a fastness rating of 1 (indicating severe staining) at the other end of the scale is represented by a pair of chips having a colour difference of 34,1 Cielab units.
Both scales may be augmented to form a 9-step scale by the provision of similar chips that illustrate the perceived colour differences corresponding to the half-step fastness ratings.
A term in general use in the knitting industry, and applied to mechanisms for selection of knitting elements.
A shedding (q.v.) mechanism (attached to the loom) that controls up to several hundred warp threads individually and thus enables intricate figured designs to be produced.
a) A machine for dyeing fabric in rope form and in which the fabric is carried through a narrow throat by dye liquor circulated at high velocity.
b) A machine for dyeing garments and in which the garments are circulated by jets of liquid rather than by mechanical means.
A dyeing machine in which fabric, in open width, is transferred repeatedly from one roller to another and passes each time through a dyebath of relatively small volume.
Jigs are also frequently used for scouring, bleaching and finishing.
Limit for Acceptable Quality (LAQ)
The number of defects permissible per 100 square metres of fabric.
A component of a garment or other article and that consists of a single layer or multiple layers of fabric attached along one or more edges to the main fabric.
Whole and broken lint fibres and fuzz fibres that are removed from the ginned cotton seed by a special ginning (q.v.) process.
The ratio between the mass of liquor employed in any treatment and the mass of fibrous material treated.
An uneven dyeing effect in which there is a variation in colour between that of the selvedge and that of the centre of a piece-dyed fabric.
A machine for producing fabric by weaving.
a) Automatic Loom
A loom on which the shuttles or pirns are changed automatically.
b) Circular Loom
A loom on which the shuttles travel simultaneously on a circular path through a wave shed (q.v.)
c) Shuttle Loom
A loom that uses a shuttle (q.v.) to insert the weft.
d) Shuttleless Loom
A loom in which the weft is drawn from a stationary supply and is inserted by means other than a shuttle.
There are three main types of shuttleless looms:
1. Gripper-Projectile <gripper-shuttle> loom in which the weft thread is taken through the shed by a projectile fitted with a jaw that grips the end of the weft thread during insertion of the pick.
2. Jet Loom in which the weft thread is taken through the shed by a jet of liquid or air.
Because of the nature of these weft insertion methods, the weft yarn in the fabric is in lengths of one or two picks.
Consequently, means are usually provided for forming acceptable edges. (See also selvedge).
3. Rapier Loom in which the means for carrying the weft thread through the shed is fixed in the end of a rigid rod or of a flexible ribbon, that (in both cases) is positively driven. Rapier looms may have a single rapier to carry the weft across the full width, or two rapiers that operate from opposite sides of the loom.
All fibres or filaments manufactured by man as distinct from those that occur naturally.
a) The treatment of cellulosic textiles, in yarn or fabric form, with a concentrated solution of a caustic alkali whereby the fibres are swollen, their strength and dye affinity is increased and their handle (q.v.) is modified.
Stretching the swollen materials while wet with caustic alkali and then washing the alkali has the additional effect of
enhancing the lustre (q.v.)
b) The process of steeping cellulose in a concentrated caustic soda solution.
A colour-match that is judged to be satisfactory under a particular illuminant but not under other illuminants of different spectral composition.
A marked change in the colour of an object with a change in the spectral composition of the light by which it is viewed.
Metamerism can be judged only with reference to the changes occurring in other objects in the fields of view as the illumination is changed.
The movement of an added substance, e.g. a dye or an alkali, from one part of a textile material to another.
Mock Leno Weave
A weave that has open spaces between groups of warp yarns and between groups of weft yarns and a similar appearance to that of a leno weave (q.v.).
Moiré Finish <watered effect>
A wavy, rippled or watered appearance on a woven rib fabric and that is produced by the action of heat and heavy pressure from rollers.
The appearance is caused by differences in the reflection of light by the flattened and the unflattened portions of the ribs, and there is no definite repeat in the pattern.
The mass of water in any form in a textile, determined by using prescribed methods and expressed as a percentage of the mass of the moist textile. (See also moisture regain).
The mass of water in any form in a textile, determined by using prescribed methods and expressed as a percentage of the mass of the dried textile.
A yarn composed of one filament that runs the whole length of the yarn.
Mixed End <thick end, wrong end>
A warp yarn that is unintentionally different in material, linear density, filament, twist, lustre or colour, etc., from the adjacent normal warp yarns.
Nylon Fibre <polyamide fibre>
The generic name for fibres made from a synthetic linear polymer in which the linkage of the simple chemical compound or compounds used in its production takes place through the formation of amide groups.
Polyamides are distinguished from one another by the number of carbon atoms in the recurring unit or units for polyamides made from two reactants, e.g. Nylon 6 and Nylon 6.6.
The production of spun yarns by a process in which the sliver (q.v.) or roving (q.v.) is opened or separated into its individual fibres or tufts and is subsequently reassembled in the spinning element into a yarn. (See also spinning).
a) The degree of parallelism of fibres, usually as a result of a combing or attenuating action on fibre assemblies that causes the fibres to be substantially parallel to the main axis of the web (q.v.) or strand.
b) A preferred direction of linear molecules in the fine structure of fibres and usually caused by so stretching an extruded fibre that the length direction of the molecules tends to lie parallel to the main axis of the fibre.
c) In the case of natural fibres, a preferred direction of linear molecules laid down during growth, e.g. a spiral around the fibre axis in cotton.
The constant mass obtained by drying at a temperature of 105-110 °C.
A ventilated drying oven (that has a positively induced air current) or other suitable oven must be used for determination of the oven-dry mass.
A modification of plain weave in which two warp yarns weave together as one.
The application of a liquor or a paste to textiles, either by passing the material through a bath and subsequently through squeeze rollers, or by passing it through squeeze rollers, the bottom one of which carries the liquor or paste.
A process of continuous dyeing in which the fabric in open width is padded with dyestuff and, if necessary, with a reducing agent, and is then steamed. (See also padding).
A close-weave, lightweight, synthetic fibre or silk fabric with high bursting and tearing strengths.
Degradation caused by the absorption of light (particularly ultraviolet light) and consequent chemical reaction.
Pick (n) <shot>
a) A single operation of the weft-insertion mechanism in weaving.
b) One or more weft threads inserted between successive beat-ups. (See beating-up).
To pass the weft through the warp shed in weaving.
A woven fabric in which the alternate picks are of different colours or yarns.
If the weft is inserted by shuttles, this fabric must be produced on a pick-at-will loom (q.v.).
a) The second of the three basic motions in weaving, in which the weft is passed through the warp shed.
b) The rectification of the face and the back of a carpet after manufacture, including insertion of missing tufts, replacement of incorrect ones and repair of broken yarns in the backing (local mending).
c) A process carried out before the final stage of fabric finishing to remove, by hand, any contamination (such as kemp (see kemp fibres), wrong fibre, coloured hair, etc.) that has not been removed by previous processing.
This process is carried out in particular during the finishing of suitings, face-finished fabrics and cream or off-white fabrics.
The dyeing of fabrics in the piece.
Fabric sold by or from the piece.
The simplest of all weave interlacings, in which the odd warp threads operate over one and under one weft thread throughout the fabric and the even warp threads reverse this order to under one, over one throughout.
A plain weave does not necessarily result in a plain surface effect or plain design in the fabric, e.g. variation in the yarn counts warp to weft or throughout the warp or weft (or both) and variation of the thread spacing warp to weft can produce rib effects (see taffetta, poult, faille and grosgrain), while colour patterning of the warp or weft (or both) results in colour-and-weave effects.
The generic name for fibres made from a synthetic linear polymer that contains, in the chain, at least 85% (m/m) of an ester of a dihydric alcohol and terphthalic acid, e.g. poly(ethyleneterephthalate).
Polyethylene Fibre <polythene fibre>
The generic name for fibres made from a synthetic linear polymer of ethylene and that has the structure:
The two types of commercial production are:
a) high-density polyethylene *HDPE), 0,96g/m², produced by low-pressure polymerisation; and
b) low-density polyethylene (LDPE), 0,93g/m², produced by high-pressure polymerisation.
A combination or association of molecules that may be of one compound or two or more compounds that react, simultaneously or consecutively, to form a regular system of molecules (usually of high molecular mass) which behaves and reacts primarily as one unit, termed a polymer.
Not all polymers are fibre-forming; fibres are formed from linear polymers only.
A regenerated cellulose fibre that is characterised by a high initial wet modulus of elasticity and a relatively low degree of swelling in sodium hydroxide solution.
A fibre made from a synthetic linear polymer obtained by polymerising an unsaturated hydrocarbon (e.g. ethylene CH²-CH² or propylene CH² = CH-CH3) to give a linear saturated hydrocarbon. (See also polyethylene fibre and polypropylene fibre).
The generic name for fibres made from a synthetic linear polymer of propylene and that has the following structure:
Small blemishes that individually do not warrant a string (q.v.) but that, when the fabric is assessed overall, render it unacceptable (in part or in whole).
A faulty fabric in which the warp or weft yarns show through the covering yarns when not so required by the construction.
An impression or an area of greater lustre in fabric, caused by irregularities of pressure during the finishing process.
The reproduction of a pattern onto a textile material by applying a suitable substance by means of an engraved surface, a stencil or other patterning device.
Resistant to a specified agency either by reason of the physical structure or the chemical non-reactivity of the textile, or arising from a treatment designed to impart the desired characteristics.
a) Proofing treatments should be defined by specified limits ascertained by tests, and the use of the term should be related to the limiting conditions.
b) The indiscriminate use of this term is deprecated, and its substitution by words such as "resistant", "retardant" or "repellent" in the appropriate context is recommended."
Descriptive of material that has been treated to render its resistant to a specified agency.
The efficacy of a proofing treatment is normally defined by a limit that is related to a specific test procedure, and the use of the term should be related to limiting conditions.
A blob of, or excess of, proofing agent adhering to the fabric but that can usually be removed quite easily.
An undulation in the fabric, caused by wrong conditions during finishing, e.g. during compressive shrinking.
Pulled Pile <pulled threads> (terry fabric)
Areas (continuous or discontinuous) where the terry pile is broken or missing or not uniform.
A fibre made from a synthetic linear polymer in which the chief recurring unit is:
The forced circulation of dye liquor through packages of fibre, yarn or fabric, without limitation of temperature.
The use of the term "pressure dyeing" in this connection is deprecated. (See also high-temperature dyeing).
The production of a layer of protruding fibres on the surface of fabrics by brushing, teazling or rubbing.
The fabric, in open width, is passed between rotating rollers covered with teazles, fine wires, carborundum, etc., whereby the surface fibres are lifted or broken to give the required effect.
A dye that, under suitable conditions, is capable of reacting chemically with a substrate to form a covalent dye-substrate linkage.
A warp-way crack or disturbance of the structure in a woven fabric, caused by a reed misdraw or a damaged or defective reed.
The ratio of the actual pressure of the water vapour in the atmosphere to the saturation pressure of water vapour at the same temperature. (The ratio is usually expressed as a percentage).
The releasing of strains and stresses in textile materials.
A shrinkage induced by the relaxation of strains present in a textile.
Strains of a temporary nature can be relaxed to a varied degree, e.g. by steam pressing or by immersion in water.
The potential shrinkage that remains in a fibre, yarn or fabric after treatment designed to reduce or eliminate shrinkage.
The expression is commonly used with reference to heat-shrinkage properties of synthetic polymer fibre after it has been heat-set.
Resultant Linear Density
The actual linear density of a plied (folded or cabled) yarn.
Rope Mark <running mark>
A long crease mark (q.v.) in a dyed or finished textile and that runs approximately in the length direction.
The marks are caused during wet processing in the rope form and may be the result of:
a) for formation of creases along which abrasion or felting may occur; or
b) imperfect penetration or circulation of the processing liquors.
A canvas that is used for the manufacture of sails.
A fabric made in sateen weave.
A weft-faced weave in which the binding places are arranged with a view to producing a smooth fabric surface that is free from twill (q.v.)
To prevent confusion with "satin", it is preferable to refer to this as "weft sateen weave".
A fabric made in satin weave.
A warp-faced weave in which the binding places are arranged with a view to producing a smooth fabric surface, free from twill.
To prevent confusion with "sateen", it is preferable to refer to this as "warp satin weave".
The treatment of textile materials in aqueous or other solutions in order to remove natural fats, waxes, proteins and other constituents, as well as dirt, oil and other impurities.
The treatment required to produce a refined textile varies with the condition and type of fibre processed.
A generic term for a low-quality plain-weave fabric of the muslin type with traditional cover factors for both warp and weft of about 4.
The mass per unit area of the fabric will vary with the 35-70 g/m² when the fabric is made from cotton.
A particular form of pressure mark (q.v.) in a fabric, and that is produced by the relief print-off of defects such as slubs or seams joining lengths of fabric, under excessive rolling tension or by contraction on the roll during wet processing.
Warp stripes that occur at regular intervals across part or all of the fabric width as the result of tension variation in the sections during section warping (q.v.) or because of differential dyeability of the warp yarns.
a) Yorkshire Warping, Scotch Warping and Silk-System Warping
A two-stage machine method of preparing a warp on beam and that consists of:
1. winding the warp in sections onto a reel (drum, mill or swift); or
2. beaming-off the complete warp from the reel onto a warp beam.
b) A Two-Stage Machine Method of preparing a warp on beam and that consists of:
1. winding "section" beams; or
2. assembling "section" beams in "warp-beam" form.
The longitudinal edges of a fabric that are formed during weaving with the weft not only turning at the edges but also passing continuously across the width of the fabric from edge.
Selvedges are often up to 20mm wide and may differ from the body of the fabric in construction or weave or both, or they may be of exactly the same construction as the body of the fabric and be separated from it by yarns of a different colour. Although selvedges may contain fancy effects or may have brand names or fabric descriptions woven into or printed on them, their main purposes is to give strength to the edges of the fabric so that it will behave satisfactorily in weaving and subsequent processes.
a) Leno Edge
A set of threads that interlace with a leno weave (q.v.) either at the edge or in the body of a fabric. In the latter case, it prevents fraying when the fabric is severed in the direction of the warp.
When in the body of the fabric, a leno edge is often referred to as a "central selvedge". (See also splits)
b) Sealed Edge
The cut edge of a fabric that has been treated by heat or chemical means to prevent fraying of the edge.
c) Shuttleless-Loom Edge
1. In some cases, either one or both edges are different from the normal woven selvedge in that the weft is held in position at the turn by threads other than the warp threads, e.g. by the use of an independent thread to lock the weft in position at the edge, or by interlocking of the weft threads. In narrow-fabric weaving this type of edge is often called a "needleloom selvedge".
2. In other cases, the weft is severed just beyond the edge of the fabric and the cut end is tucked into the shed (q.v.) formed on the next pick.
Sett <set> (Woven Fabric)
Denotes the spacing of ends or picks, or both, and is expressed as the number of threads per centimetre.
The state of the fabric at the time should be described, e.g. loom, grey, finished.
The process of conferring dimensional stability on fibres, yarns or fabrics, generally by means of moist or dry heat.
The operation of setting is applied to textile materials of all kinds but assumes special significance in the treatment of synthetic-polymer materials such as nylon, polyester, etc.
A common term loosely used to describe broadly a particular colour or depth, e.g. pale shade, 2% shade, mode shade, fashion shade.
To bring about, in dyeing, relatively small modifications in the colour of a substrate by adding further small amounts of dye, especially with the object of obtaining a more accurate match with a required pattern or colour.
A side-to-side change in colour across the width of a fabric.
Shed <warp shed>
The opening formed when the warp threads are separated in the operation of weaving.
The first of the three basic motions in weaving, in which a shed (q.v.) is formed.
A changeable colour effect on a lustrous or shiny fabric in which the warp yarns and weft yarns are of contrasting colours.
The fabric normally has a plain weave or a 2/2 twill weave when this effect is required.
So to treat a textile fabric as to delay the absorption and penetration of water.
In the case of a fabric, a degree of permeability to air is retained.
The reduction in a dimension of a fibre, yarn or fabric.
Shrinkage may be induced by various treatments, e.g. wetting, steaming, alkali treatment, laundering, dry heat.
A yarn package carrier that is passed through the shed (q.v.) to insert weft during weaving.
A thread produced by a single unit of a spinning machine, extrusion machine or silk-reeling machine.
A gelatinous film-forming substance in solution or dispersion, usually applied to warps but sometimes to wefts, generally before weaving.
a) The main types of substance used are carbohydrates and their derivatives, gelatin and animal glues, linseed oil, polyacrylic acid and polyvinyl alcohol.
b) The objects of sizing prior to weaving are to protect the yarns from abrasion in the healds and the reed and against each other, to strengthen them and, by the additional of oils and fats, to lubricate them.
c) A size may be applied to carpets (e.g. starch) and occasionally to wool fibres (e.g. animal glue).
A fabric condition in which the warp and weft yarns, although straight, are not at right angles to each other.
A warp yarn that appears puckered as the result of having been woven under less tension than the adjacent warp yarns.
A weft thread or part of a weft thread that has been woven into the cloth at a lower tension than the adjacent normal picks.
A thickened place (in a spun yarn) that has tapering ends and a diameter several times that of the adjacent normal yarn.
A relatively large hole in a fabric and characterised by many broken warp ends and floating picks, or a prominent mark that remains after the repair of such a hole.
Yarns, fibres or filaments in the form of long loops that have been drawn out from the structure of a fabric by a protruding sharp object.
A short length of warp or weft yarn that has twisted on itself owing to lively twist (see twist liveliness) or insufficient tension.
The snarling may occur during or prior to the weaving process.
Two or more lengths of fabric that are woven side by side and subsequently separated from each other by cutting along lines formed by leaving one or more dents.
Fraying at the cut edges may be prevented by the use of a leno edge (q.v.) or other suitable means.
a) Any adventitious (unwanted) colour, owing to dye, dirt or iron, on textile material.
A severe stain is one that will resist processing.
b) The fugitive or permanent colouring of material for identification purposes.
Standard Atmosphere for Testing
a) Standard Temperature Atmosphere
An atmosphere having a relative humidity of 65 ± 2% and a temperature of 20 ± 2°C.
b) Standard Tropical Atmosphere
An atmosphere having a relative humidity of 65 ± 2% and a temperature of 27 ± 2°C.
Standard Condition for Physical Testing
The condition of a textile material that has been dried to approximately constant mass in an atmosphere that has a relative humidity not exceeding 10%, and then kept in the appropriate standard atmosphere for testing (q.v.) until it has reached equilibrium.
In cases where a textile material is not likely to lose volatile matter other than water, or to change dimensions, the preliminary drying may be carried out in an oven at 50-60°C situated in the standard atmosphere for testing which is a convenient way of achieving a relative humidity of about 10%. When the oven is supplied with the supplementary standard atmosphere, an oven temperature of 60-70°C is required. Equilibrium with the standard atmosphere for testing may be assumed when successive determinations for mass at intervals of at least 2h show no progressive change exceeding 0,25% in the mass of the textile material.
An open-width fabric-finishing machine in which the selvedges are so held by attachments to a pair of endless travelling chains that the fabric is finished to a specified width.
a) Attachments may be pins (pin stenter) or clips (clip stenter).
b) Such machines are used for:
2. heat-setting of thermoplastic materials;
3. fixation of chemical finishes.
Strained Weft (See split weft)
A form of transfer printing (q.v.) that uses dyes that sublimate readily and have substantivity (q.v.) for the substrate to which they are applied.
The attraction, under the precise conditions of test, between a substrate and a dye (or other substance) where the latter is selectively extracted from the application medium by the substrate.
Man-made staple fibres or filaments produced from polymers derived from chemical elements or compounds as opposed to those made by man from naturally occurring fibre-forming polymers.
Selvedge, Cut <selvedge, torn>
A selvedge in which three or more adjacent yarns have been severed.
The process or processes used in the production of yarns or filaments.
a) This term may apply to the drafting and twisting of natural or man-made fibres (see continuous spinning, intermittent spinning, open-end spinning), to the extrusion of filaments by spiders and silkworms, or to the production of filaments from glass, metals or fibre-forming polymers.
b) In the spinning of man-made filaments, fibre-forming substances in the plastic or molten state, or in solution, are forced through the holes of a spinning jet (q.v.) or die at a controlled rate (extrusion). There are five general methods of spinning man-made filaments, but a combination of two (or more) of these methods may also be used. They are the following:
1. Dispersion Spinning
The process in which polymers that tend to be infusible, insoluble and generally interactable (e.g. polytetrafluoroethylene) are dispersed as fine particles in a carrier, such a sodium aliginate or sodium xanthate solutions, which permits extrusion into fibres, after which the dispersed polymer is coalesced by a heating process; the carrier is removed either by a heating or by a dissolving process.
2. Dry Spinning
The process in which a solution of the polymer is extruded into a heated chamber to remove the solvent and leave the solid filament.
3. Melt Spinning
The process as used in the manufacture of nylon in which the fibre-forming polymer is melted and extruded into air or other gas or a suitable liquid, where it is cooled and solidified.
4. Reaction Spinning
The process in which polymerisation is achieved during the extrusion through spinning jet (q.v.) system of reactants.
5. Wet Spinning
The process as used in the manufacture of viscose rayon in which the solution of the polymer is extruded into coagulating media where the polymer is regenerated.
c) In the bast fibre and leaf fibre industries, the terms "dry spinning" and "wet spinning" refer to the spinning of fibres in the dry state and in the wet state, respectively.
Selvedge, Jacquard <jacquard selvedge>
A selvedge that has a jacquard-woven pattern or lettering.
Split Weft <strained weft>
A continous-filament thread that has lost some of its filaments, usually as a result of abrasion or excessive tension during winding or weft insertion and that appears as a thin yarn.
A selvedge that is tighter than the adjacent fabric owing to incorrect balance of the fabric structure between the ground and the selvedges, or owing to the selvedge ends being woven at too high a tension.
Tearing Strength (Fabric)
The resistance to the force that is required to start or to continue a tear in a fabric when tested under prescribed conditions appropriate to the fabric.
A disturbance of the weave adjacent to the edge of a fabric and caused by a poorly adjusted temple.
The maximum specific strength of a fibre or yarn that is developed in a tensile test taken to rupture point.
The breaking strength (q.v.) per unit area of the cross-section of a textile material.
The use of this term as a synonym for "breaking strength" is incorrect.
The basic unit of the tex system (q.v.) and that is equal to one gram per kilometre.
The multiple and submultiples recommended for use are the following:
Kilograms per kilometre: kilotex (ktex)
Milligrams per kilometre: millitex (mtex)
Decigrams per kilometre: decitex (dtex)
The direct decimal system based on metric units that has been adopted by ISO as a universal system for designating the linear density of fibres, filaments, slivers and yarns.
Any item manufactured from natural or man-made fibres or filaments, e.g. yarns, threads, cords, ropes, braids, lace, embroidery, nets and fabrics made by weaving, knitting, braiding, felting, bonding and tufting.
A yarn that has been so processed as to introduce durable crimps (q.v.), coils, loops or other fine distortions along the length of the fibres or filaments.
a) The main texturing processes usually applied to continuous-filament yarns made from or containing thermoplastic fibres, are as follows:
1. The yarn is highly twisted, heat-set and untwisted, either as a continuous process (false twisting) or as a three-stage process.
2. The yarn is passed through a heated "stuffer box" (stuffer box crimping).
3. The heated yarn is passed over a knife edge (edge crimping).
4. The heated yarn is passed between a pair of geared wheels or some similar device (gear crimping).
5. The yarn is knitted into a fabric, heat-set and unravelled (knit-deknit).
6. Loops are formed in individual filaments by over-feeding into a turbulent airstream (air-textured).
7. Bicomponent Fibres (q.v.) are differentially shrunk.
b) Processes (1) and (3) above produce yarns of a generally high stretch character. This stretch character is frequently reduced by reheating the yarn in a state where it is only partly relaxed from the fully extended condition, thus producing a yarn with the bulkiness little reduced but with a much reduced retractive power.
c) Fabrics that contain textured yarns have increased bulk, opacity, and moisture absorbency and improved thermal insulation properties with a warmer handle (q.v.); some textured yarns also confer extensible or "stretch" properties on fabrics made from them.
A textile that is deformable (but not changed chemically) by the application of heat and pressure.
The salient feature is that the deformation can be repeated.
A prominent band (q.v.) in which there is an increase in the pick density of a woven fabric or in the stitch density of a knitted fabric, compared with that of the normal fabric.
A prominent band (q.v.) in which there is a decrease in the pick density of a woven fabric or in the stitch density of a knitted fabric, compared with that of the normal fabric.
a) The result of twisting together, in one or more operations, two or more single, folded or cabled yarns (see under yarn).
b) A product as defined in (a) above and intended primarily for sewing purposes and known as a sewing thread.
c) A component of silk yarn, and that is the product of winding together, without twist, a number of baves (q.v.), e.g. a
3-thread silk yarn is the result of folding three such products together.
"1. The term "thread" is frequently used to describe single yarns."
"2. The term "thread" is also used in such expressions as "threads per unit length", irrespective of their nature."
Threads Per Square Centimetre
The sum of the number of warps threads per centimetre and the number of weft threads per centimetre in a woven fabric.
Threads Per Unit Length (Woven Fabrics)
The number of warp threads (ends) or the number of weft threads (picks) in a specified length of fabric.
a) The unit of length is usually taken as the centimetre, but with fabrics that have less than 10 threads per centimetre, it is advisable to use a unit length of 1 decimetre (10cm).
b) With fabrics that have more than 10 threads per centimetre, the actual count may be taken over 2cm, 3cm or 5cm and the result given by calculation in threads per centimetre.
c) Counting may be done at the following stages of manufacture:
The count is taken when no further processing in the piece is prescribed. In all cases, the condition of the fabric at the time the count was taken should be noted.
2. In the Loom
The position of the count should be agreed on. It is usually taken between the fell of the fabric and the take-up roller, with the fabric under weaving tension.
The count is taken after the fabric has been removed from the loom and relaxed from weaving tension, but before it is subjected to any further treatment that may modify its dimensions.
A waste length of warp (yarn) or of fabric, or both, formed during the preparation of a loom for weaving.
a) A thrum may be formed as follows:
1. During the adjustment of a loom at the commencement of the weaving of the warp. When the loom is correctly adjusted, the portion of the warp that contains picks inserted for testing the adjustment of the loom mechanism is cut off.
2. During warp replenishment in a loom. The old warp is twisted or knotted to the new warp and, if the new warp is drawn through by weaving, the point in the woven fabric at which the twisted or knitted warp ends occur is called a "through" because the fabric is cut through to remove the thrum containing the imperfect fabric formed by the twisted or knotted warp ends.
3. During loom operations away from the loom.
In the above cases, a thrum consists of portions of the old and the new warp ends twisted or knotted together.
b) A thrum may also be:
1. A length of warp ends cut from the warp for the purpose of:
(i) evaluating the percentage of applied size;
(ii) repairing end-breakages in the warp concerned;
2. Any loose end(s) of warp;
3. A bundle of coarse yarns tied together by twine for use in making a mop.
A warp thread or part of a warp thread that has less crimp in the fabric than have the adjacent normal ends.
This may be owing to weaving under greater tension or to abnormal stretching of the yarn during some process prior to weaving. It may be caused by excess moisture, e.g. during winding, and consequent contraction during finishing.
A weft thread or part of a weft thread that has less crimp than have the adjacent normal picks.
This may be owing to a weft yarn having been inserted under greater tension than that imposed on the other weft yarns, or to the relaxation of a weft yarn subsequent to insertion, or to abnormal stretching of a yarn during some process prior to weaving. It may also be caused by the presence of excess moisture, e.g. during winding, and consequent contraction during finishing. (See also shiner).
a) A weave that repeats on three or more ends and picks and produces diagonal lines on the face of the fabric.
b) A fabric that has the above weave.
1. The diagonal lines produced on the surface of the fabric by a twill weave are often referred to as the twill in such phrases as "a prominent twill", "a broken twill", "unwanted twill".
2. Unwanted twill may arise as a defect in satin fabrics, the intensity of the unwanted twill depending on the fabric structure, the weave and the number of ends (q.v.) per dent (q.v.) in the reed.
a) The spiral disposition of the component (s) of a yarn and that is usually the result of relative rotation of the extremities of the yarn (s).
b) The number of turns per unit length of yarn, e.g. turns per metre.
1. Twist in Single Yarns
2. Twist in Folded Yarns
ZZ twist -on-twist (q.v.)
SS twist -on-twist (q.v.)
3. Twist in Cabled Yarns
ZSZ twist (formerly "cabled twist")
ZZS twist (formerly "hawser twist")
The first symbol designates the direction of twist in a single yarn, the second symbol designates the direction of twist in the folding operation, and the third symbol the direction of twist in the cabling operation.
Twist Factor <twist multiplier>
A measure of the "twist hardness" of a single yarn, determined by the multiplication of the turns per unit length by the square root of the linear density of the tex system.
The effect caused by unbalanced torsional forces in any yarn, and of sufficient magnitude to give rise to difficulties in processing or defects in the resulting fabric.
Examples of this are snarling (see snarl) in processing and spirality (q.v.) in knitted fabric.
A dyed area of variable colour.
A solution obtained by dissolving cellulose xanthate in a dilute solution of caustic soda.
The generic name for fibres formed by the regeneration of cellulose from viscose (q.v.) by treatment with a solution of electrolytes (salts and acids). (See also spinning bath).
The internal resistance to flow of a fluid.
A term applied specifically to signify the viscosity (see (a) above) of a standard solution of cellulose in cuprammonium hydroxide solution of specified copper and ammonia content.
The flow behaviour of a mixing is best described by a flow curve relating apparent viscosity (in mPa.s) to shearing stress (in Pa). If the shearing stresses operative in the sizing were known, the apparent viscosities of the mixings at these stresses would be related to their sizing behaviour. Without this knowledge, measurements at some arbitrary stress (say 100 Pa) have to be used. These are of value in characterising a particular type of size and can often be related to the take-up of size by the warp.
a) Threads lengthways in a fabric as woven.
b) A number of threads in long lengths and approximately parallel, which may be in various forms intended for weaving, knitting, doubling, sizing, dyeing or lace-making.
To arrange threads in long lengths parallel to one another preparatory to further processing.
In addition to beaming, the following methods of warping are practised: ball warping, cross-ball warping and chain warping. The primary stage of these methods of warping is the withdrawal of the ends from a warping creel and their assembly in rope form, a form that may conveniently be used for wet processing. For convenience of handling, this rope may be:
a) wound into a ball (ball warping);
b) machine-wound onto a wooden roller into a cross-ball cheese (cross-ball or cheese-ball warping);
c) shortened into a link chain (chain warping).
A number of these ropes may be assembled into a complete warp on a beam in a dressing frame, or may be split and dressed and incorporated in warps made by other methods. (See also section warping).
Deviation of the warp yarn from a straight line; alternatively, curvature of the warp yarns.
An aqueous detergent solution used for the physical removal of extraneous substances from textile materials.
A type of finish applied to a textile fabric and that prevents the spreading of globules of water over its surface.
The term is normally not applied to a water-repellent finish that is impervious to air; this is generally referred to as "waterproof".
a) The action of atmospheric agencies or elements on substances exposed to them.
b) The discoloration, disintergration, etc., that results from this action.
The pattern of the interlacing of warp and weft in a woven fabric (q.v.).
To form a fabric by the interlacing of warp and weft.
a) Width-way threads as woven in a fabric.
b) Yarn intended for use as in (a) above.
A woven or a braided narrow fabric or a yarn or a group of yarns that has/have particularly good capillary properties.
A fabric produced by interlacing warp and weft.
A textile product of substantial length and relatively small cross-section and that consists of fibres (q.v.) or filament(s) (q.v.) (or both) with or without twist.
a) Assemblies of fibres or filaments are usually given other names during the stages that lead to the production of yarn, e.g. tow, slubbing, sliver, roving (q.v.). Except in the case of continuous-filament fibres or tape yarns, any tensile strength possessed by assemblies at these stages would generally be the minimum that would hold them together during processing.
b) Staple, continuous-filament and monofilament yarns are included.
c) No distinction is made between single and cabled yarns.
d) Zero-twist and self-twist staple yarns are included.
e) Zero-twist continuous-filament yarns are included.
f) By the definition of fibre and filament, paper, metal-film and glass yarns are included.
Yarn, Cabled <cabled yarn>
Two or more yarns (at least one of which is folded) (see yarn, doubled) that have been twisted together in one or more operations.
a) Combinations of folded yarns and single yarns may be described as cabled yarns, e.g. a single yarn is twisted together with two folded yarns to give softness to the resulting yarn.
b) In the tyre-yarn and cord sections of the textile industry, cabled yarns are termed "cable cords" or "cords". These terms include two-fold continuous-filament man-made fibre yarns, a traditional example being 1 830 dtex rayon cord, single twist 480 t/m (Z), and cabled twist 480 t/m (S).
c) For terms concerning twist designation in cabled yarns, see twist (b).
Yarn, Doubled <doubled yarn, folded yarn, plied yarn>
A yarn in which two or more single yarns are twisted together in one operation, e.g. two-fold yarn, three-fold yarn, etc.
In some sections of the textile industry, e.g. the marketing of hand-knitting yarns, these yarns would be referred to as "two-ply", "three-ply", etc.